Library E-Resources Accessibility
Professional, third party web accessibility tests of a number of major library databases, ebooks and other products from vendors, provided by Big 10 Academic Alliance.
Introduction to Web Accessibility:
WebAIM Introduction to Web Accessibility
Video clips of people using & explaining screen readers:
Accessibility: Introduction to the Screen Reader
Screen Readers and the Web
"Learn relatively easy tips Web designers can use to increase access to the Web by a variety of users."
Automated accessibility checkers for webpages:
WAVE Accessibility Checker
“WAVE is… used to aid humans in the web accessibility evaluation process. Rather than providing a complex technical report, WAVE shows the original web page with embedded icons and indicators that reveal the accessibility of that page.” People who do not have experience with web coding can share the results of the accessibility checker with IT staff.
WC3 list of web accessibility evaluation tools
Automated checker for readability:
The Readability Test Tool
Automated checkers for colorblindness accessibility:
WebAIM Color Contrast Checker
Colorblind Webpage Filter
Screencast software and tutorials:
Adobe Captivate Accessibility Overview
Penn State advice on Captivate accessibility
Techsmith and Camtasia Accessibility advice on accessibility
Oud, J. (2016, December). Accessibility challenges of vendor-created database tutorials for people with disabilities
. Retrieved from https://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/ital/article/view/9469
5 Tips to Help You Build Accessible Libguide Content
from SpringshareBest Practices Accessibility
from University of Illinois
Describing Visual Resources Toolkit
Web Accessibility Technical Standards:
Old Section 508 Standards. § 1194.22 Web-based intranet and internet information and applications. This is only linked here for historical purposes. Currently Section 508 refers to WCAG 2.0 instead of offering separate technical standards.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1
Accessibility of full text formats- PDF, EPUB, etc.
Harpur, P., & Suzor, N. (2014). The paradigm shift in realising the right to read" how ebook libraries are enabling in the university sector. Disability & Society, 29(10), 1658-1671. Retrieved from https://eprints.qut.edu.au/78325/1/78325.pdf
Mulliken, A. & Falloon, K. (2019). Blind academic library users experiences with obtaining full text and accessible full text of books and articles in the USA. Library Hi Tech, 37(3), 456-479. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHT-08-2017-0177
Nganji, J. T. (2015). The portable document format (PDF) accessibility practice of four journal publishers. Library and Information Science Research, 37(3), 254-262. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2015.02.002
Oswal, S. K. (2014). Access to digital library databases in higher education: Design problems and infrastructural gaps. Work, 48(3), 307-317. doi:10.3233/WOR-131791
Polanka, S. (2013). What librarians need to know about EPUB3. (ebook buzz). Online Searcher, 37(4), 70.
Beyene, W. M. (2017). Metadata and universal access in digital library environments. Library Hi Tech, 35(2), 210-221. doi:10.1108/LHT-06-2016-0074
Beyene, W. M., & Godwin, T. (2018). Accessible search and the role of metadata. Library Hi Tech, 36(1), 2-17. doi:10.1108/LHT-08-2017-0170
Koford, A. (2014). How disability studies scholars interact with subject headings. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 52(4), 388-411. doi:10.1080/01639374.2014.891288
Policy on Web Accessibility:
Educause IT Risk Register
Frequently Asked Questions About the June 29, 2010, Dear Colleague Letter
This is a joint letter from the US Department of Justice and the Office for Civil Rights
QUOTE: “Does the DCL [Dear Colleague Letter] apply to all school operations and all faculty and staff?
A: Yes. All school operations are subject to the nondiscrimination requirements of Section 504 and the ADA. Thus, all faculty and staff must comply with these requirements…. The law applies to all faculty and staff, not just a Section 504 or ADA coordinator or staff members designated to assist students with disabilities. All faculty and staff must comply with the nondiscrimination requirements of Section 504 and the ADA in their professional interactions with students, because these interactions are part of the operations of the school. So, for example, if an adjunct faculty member denies a student who is blind an equal opportunity to participate in a course by assigning inaccessible course content, the school can be held legally responsible for the faculty member’s actions. Therefore, schools should provide, and faculty and staff should participate in, professional development about accessibility and emerging technology, and about the role of faculty and staff in helping the school to comply with disability discrimination laws.”
Mears, W., & Clough, H. (2015). Online library accessibility support: A case study within the open university library. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 30(1), 73-85. doi:10.1080/02680513.2015.1025735
Providenti, M. & Zai, R. III. (2007). Web accessibility at academic libraries: standards, legislation, and enforcement. Library Hi Tech, 25 (4), 494.
Report of the ARL Joint Task Force on Services to Patrons with Print Disabilities (Nov. 2, 2012)
Report of the Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities
This independent Commission was established by the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008.
QUOTES: “every postsecondary institution should offer a mandatory system-wide orientation for faculty, staff, teaching assistants and administrators concerning strategies for ensuring accessibility in all aspects of the education enterprise, including readings, courseware and instructional technology, assessments and instructor-made materials.” Page 79
“The transition to AIM [Accessible Instructional Materials] needs to be supported by training of students and support for students who are not adept in the use of digital technologies.” Page 52
WebAIM: Web Accessibility in Mind. Introduction to Laws Throughout the World.
Whiting, J., Smith, J., & Rowland, C. (2015). What do you need to create and maintain web accessibility? Accessible instructional design (pp. 13-45) Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi:10.1108/S2056-769320150000002002
Web Accessibility Resolutions Agreements, Settlements and Legal Cases Specifically Referencing Academic Libraries:
Miami University Agrees to Overhaul Critical Technologies to Settle Disability Discrimination Lawsuit (October 17, 2016)
Atlantic Cape Community College Consent Decree (July 7, 2015)
University of Phoenix Resolution Agreement (June 12, 2015)
University of Cincinnati Resolution Agreement [pdf] (December 8, 2014)
Finlandia University Resolution Agreement (May 23, 2104)
University of Montana Accessibility Resolution Agreement (March 19, 2014)
Civil Rights Agreement Reached with South Carolina Technical College System on Accessibility of Websites to People with Disabilities (March 8, 2013)
Settlement between Penn State University and National Federation of the Blind," (2011)
Lists of Resolution Agreements and Legal Cases by Digital Accessibility Topic
University of Washington Legal Case by Issue - Focuses on higher ed accessibility issues including accessibility audits, policy, training and education, procurement, websites, learning management systems, classroom technologies
IT Accessibility Risk Statements and Evidence by Topic - Includes categories for legal action related to allocation of resources for accessibility, accessibility of content, hardware, procurement, awareness and training and more.
Libraries' Responses to Legal Complaints
Leonard, E. (2018). Dream the impossible dream: A case study of U.S. federal website accessibility standards compliance at seton hall university libraries. International Information & Library Review, 50(1), 34-39. doi:10.1080/10572317.2018.1422908
Lush, B. (2015). Managing accessible library web content. Accessibility for persons with disabilities and the inclusive future of libraries (pp. 169-189) Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi:10.1108/S0065-283020150000040017 Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/S0065-283020150000040017
Database of Web Accessibility Resources for Libraries
Amsberry, D. & B. Lush. Web Accessibility Resources for Libraries
This bibliography consists of print and electronic resources on all aspects of web accessibility in libraries, both public and academic. The project encompasses electronic accessibility in all formats, including: online catalogs, databases, electronic books and journals, web sites, online tutorials, search engines, digitized collections, and online citation managers.
User behavior, usability and qualitative studies about users
Beyene, W. M. (2018). Digital inclusion in library context: A perspective from users with print disability. Journal of Web Librarianship, 12(2), 121-140. doi:10.1080/19322909.2018.1427657
Beyene, W. M., & Ferati, M. (2017). A case for adaptation to enhance usability and accessibility of library resource discovery tools. Paper presented at the Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction. Design and Development Approaches and Methods, 145-155. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-58706-6_12
Dermody, K., & Majekodunmi, N. (2011). Online databases and the research experience for university students with print disabilities. Library Hi Tech, 29(1), 149-160. doi:10.1108/07378831111116976
Haanperä, T., & Nieminen, M. (2013). Usability of web search interfaces for blind users - A review of digital academic library user interfaces. in Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services for Quality of Life Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 8011, 2013, pp 321-330.
Mulliken, A. (2017). "There is nothing inherently mysterious about assistive technology": A qualitative study about blind user experiences in US academic libraries. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 57(2), 115-126. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/rusq.57.2.6528
Mulliken, A. (2018). Eighteen blind library users’ experiences with library websites and search tools in U.S. academic libraries: A qualitative study. College & Research Libraries, Advanced online publication Retrieved from https://crl.acrl.org/index.php/crl/article/view/16947
Sahib, N. G. (2011). Investigating the information seeking behaviour of blind searchers on the web. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom. 558-560. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2305316.2305420
Sahib, N. G., Tombros, A., & Stockman, T. (2012). A comparative analysis of the information‐seeking behavior of visually impaired and sighted searchers. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(2), 377-391. doi:10.1002/asi.21696
Tatomir, J. & Durrance, J.C. (2010) Overcoming the information gap: Measuring the accessibility of library databases to adaptive technology users. Library Hi Tech, 28 (4) 577 - 594. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/07378831011096240
Yoon, K., Dols, R., Hulscher, L., & Newberry, T. (2016). An exploratory study of library website accessibility for visually impaired users. Library and Information Science Research, 38(3), 250-258. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2016.08.006
Schmetzke, A. Accessibility of Online Library Catalogs, Indexes and Databases, and Other Library/Information Resources. This was a bibliography that includes a section on “Research Studies” covering up until 2008 with a few sources up until 2010 included. To avoid duplication, the research studies listed in Schmetzke's bibliography are mostly not included in this ALA Connect post. Unfortunately, Schmetzke’s bibliography appears to no longer be available when checked in February 2020.